This document provides an overview of the XORP Multicast Forwarding Engine Abstraction (MFEA). It is intended to provide a starting point for software developers who wish to modify this software. The main purpose of the MFEA is to abstract the underlying system and the multicast forwarding engine, and to provide a consistent interface to multicast-related modules such as PIM and MLD/IGMP. Thus, if we want to use PIM and MLD/IGMP on different OS platform or hardware, we would have to modify the MFEA only. In addition, all the complexity associated with network sockets, sending and receiving packets, and so on are moved away from the protocol modules. This eliminates code duplication, and reduces greatly the development overhead associated with protocol-independent issues when implementing a new protocol. Finally, if we want to use PIM and MLD/IGMP in a simulation-like environment, it will be sufficient to add the simulation environment support only to the MFEA. Currently (April, 2010), the MFEA supports abstraction for the following systems:
In the future, the MFEA will support simulation environment, and abstraction for Click forwarding path1). Support for other systems will be added on-demand if there are available resources. Note that typically the MFEA would be part of the unicast FEA process, though logically it is a separate entity. However, if someone wants to run the MFEA as a separate process, it requires very small development effort to do this because of the logical separation between the FEA and the MFEA.
The following figure provides a general overview of the MFEA components.
For each component there is a C++ class with exactly the same name. The main components are briefly described below:
|MfeaNode||a representation of a single MFEA unit (e.g., as part of a virtual multicast router). Typically, there would be a single MfeaNode per multicast router.|
|MfeaVif||MFEA-specific virtual (network) interface that is used to keep state per network interface.|
|MfeaConfig||contains MFEA-specific configuration.|
|MfeaDft||table with dataflow-related information for estimating the bandwidth per dataflow.|
|ProtoComm||per-protocol UNIX-specific unit for communication with the underlying system.|
|MfeaMrouter||unit for multicast-related communication with the underlying system.|
Those components are described in details in the following section. For information about the interaction between the MFEA and other modules see XORP Multicast Routing Design Architecture.
MfeaNode is a representation of a single MFEA unit (e.g., as part of a virtual multicast router). Typically, there would be a single MfeaNode per multicast router. However, in some cases a multicast router may have more than one MFEA units. For example, it could have one MfeaNode for IPv4, and another one for IPv6 multicast routing. Further, if we want to run MFEA in a simulation environment, each multicast router within that simulation will have a single MfeaNode. From a developer’s point of view, MfeaNode contains all the state related to the MFEA unit, and exports the front-end interface to interact with that unit. For example, MfeaNode contains the methods to start/stop or configure the MFEA, or to send/receive protocol control packets (e.g., PIM or MLD/IGMP) to/from the unit. Those methods are described in the following files:
MfeaNode provides the following abstraction to the multicast-related modules such as PIM and MLD/IGMP:
MfeaNode itself does not implement the mechanisms to communicate with the multicast-related modules (e.g., to send or receive control packets to/from the PIM module). Those mechanisms are outside the scope of MfeaNode, and must be implemented separately. MfeaNode contains several pure virtual methods (e.g., dataflow_signal_send() is used to send multicast dataflow-related signals to a multicast-related module that is interested in tracking dataflow-related conditions) that must be implemented by a class that inherits MfeaNode. For example, XrlMfeaNode is a class that uses MfeaNode as a base class; XrlMfeaNode uses XRL-based communication mechanisms between MfeaNode and other XORP components such as the PIM and MLD/IGMP modules. By default, MfeaNode is disabled; therefore, on startup it must be enabled explicitly.
MfeaVif is a MFEA-specific virtual (network) interface that is used to keep various state per interface. Typically, there would be one MfeaVif per network interface such as physical interface, tunnel, or the loopback interface. In addition, there is one special MfeaVif: the PIM Register virtual interface that is used for sending and receiving PIM Register packets 2). One of the purposes of MfeaVif is to keep various information about each network interface available on the system: network and subnet address, is the interface up or multicast-capable, and so on. This information is obtained from the FEA (the only exception is the PIM Register vif which is created internally by the MFEA), and is used by the MFEA to keep track of any changes to an interface (e.g., an alias address has been added/deleted, etc). If there is a change to an interface, those changes are saved locally by the MFEA, and then the MFEA informs all protocol modules that are registered by the MFEA. Another purpose of MfeaVif is to keep track of the multicast groups that have been joined per interface. For example, if a multicast-related module that uses the MFEA joins a multicast group on an interface, the MFEA uses the appropriate system call to join the group on the specified interface, and at the same time it would keep the appropriate state on the corresponding MfeaVif. Thus, if another module joins exactly same multicast group on that interface, but later one of those modules leaves that group, the MFEA would modify only the appropriate state in MfeaVif, but will not use a system call to leave the multicast group on the interface. Typically, from developer’s point of view, all interactions with MfeaVif would be through MfeaNode 3). The public interface for MfeaVif contains the methods to manipulate a virtual (network) interface. Those methods are to start/stop/enable/disable a virtual interface, and to configure it. The methods are described in the following files:
By default, each MfeaVif is disabled; therefore, on startup it must be enabled explicitly.
MfeaConfig handles the MFEA-specific configuration 4) . This configuration is used to configure the following units:
Some protocols such as PIM-SM need the bandwidth of multicast data flows to be monitored: if the bandwidth of a specific data flow (defined by a source and a group address) is above or below a predefined threshold (defined per data flow), the protocol should be informed. For example, if the bandwidth of a data flow is zero for some predefined amount of time, the corresponding multicast routing entry in the multicast routing protocol module might be deleted (as well as the corresponding multicast forwarding entry in the multicast forwarding engine). Another example is the Shortest-Path Tree switch in case of PIM-SM: the SPT switch is triggered if the bandwidth from a specific source is above a pre-configured threshold. If the multicast forwarding engine in the underlying system does support bandwidth dataflow monitoring, then any addition or deletion of a dataflow monitor to the MFEA translates to a system call to the underlying system, and the MFEA itself does not need to keep any state. However, if the underlying system does not support bandwidth dataflow monitoring, then the MFEA needs to implement that on its own. In case of UNIX kernel for example, the kernel supports an ioctl() system call to obtain the number of octets and packets forwarded so far on an existing MFC entry. Thus, if the MFEA reads this information twice, it can compute the data bandwidth between the two readings. The purpose of the MfeaDft table is to keep state about the dataflows the MFEA is monitoring (only in the case the underlying system does not support bandwidth dataflow monitoring). For each entry in MfeaDft, the MFEA periodically reads the bandwidth forwarding statistics from the underlying system. If the forwarded bandwidth satisfies the pre-defined condition for that dataflow, the MFEA originates a dataflow signal to the module that has installed that dataflow monitoring entry. This signal is delivered every time the pre-defined condition is true (until the entry is explicitly deleted by the module that installed it).
ProtoComm is a per-protocol unit for communication with the underlying system. ProtoComm implements various methods that use the appropriate system calls to open or close a socket per protocol, to send or receive protocol packets, to join or leave a multicast group (per protocol per interface), and so on. Typically, there is a single ProtoComm entry per protocol; e.g., one ProtoComm for PIM, another one for IGMP (or MLD in case of IPv6), etc. When a protocol module registers a network protocol with MFEA, the corresponding ProtoComm for that protocol is created (if it did not exist). Each ProtoComm entry is also used to keep information about various protocol preferences: e.g., whether a protocol module instance is interested in receiving various kernel upcall signals, etc.
MfeaMrouter is an unit used for multicast-related communication with the underlying system. For example, MfeaMrouter is used for the following tasks (this list may not be complete):
MfeaMrouter is started when MfeaNode is started, and usually stops operation when MfeaNode is stopped.